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Friday, May 7, 2010

Overview of personality

Friday, May 7, 2010

Many expert or world leaders over time have revealed about the nature and human nature. They paring about the nature of human-centered and nature of the discussion about human psychology and personality. In general, experts suggest, that the human personality in the form of a combination between body and soul. Body formed by biological principles, starting from the first human creation till the offspring. And inside the human body is equipped with their members and body parts for the preservation of the life of the soul. Body-language implements actions that are driven by people with certain ways.

Psychology question of human behavior, whether observed or not observed. All human behavior has a psychological background. Therefore, in general, human activities those show the human personality. Of course every human being has a different personality. Personality growth and development throughout the human life, especially from birth to adolescence that is always in the family environment, which was raised by parents and hanging out with other family members as well as the environment outside the family. Of course everyone has a different personality. There is a personality that attracted others, which contains positive elements and there is also reprehensible, which contain negative elements.
Here will be described several definitions of personality. Among them are as listed below:

1. Personality can be said of social behavior patterns, patterns of fear, the urge and desire, movement patterns and shades opinions and attitudes.

2. Someones personality is a complex integration of cognitive processes, attitudes and assessment development process, the process of learning the various roles and self-concept.

Gordon W. Allport (1973) provides definitions of personality as follows: Personality is the organization of dynamic systems and soul within the individual that determine his unique adjustment to its environment.

From the description of the personality definition above can be concluded that the personality, the overall pattern (shape) behavior, traits, habits, skills, body shape and the elements of psycho-physical other who always appeared in one's life. And aims as the totality of the psychic personality dynamic, unity based on cooperation between various side / part of the psyche, especially part of conscious and unconscious.

Some kind of division types are:
A. Galenus’s opinion
Glenus a physician to the Roman temperament divides human beings into four types based on the most influential type of fluid on the human body.

1. Cholericus: yellow bile (Chloe) was most influential. This human’s big and strong bodies, peppery are hard to control himself.

2. Sanguinicus: blood (sanguis) a greater influence. This human’s face is always beaming, jovial and spirited childish.

3. Flegmaticus: lendis (flegma) most react. This human demeanor calm, lazy, pessimistic, and his face was always pale.

4. Melancholicus: black bile (melanchole) are more influential. People with this type has always been moody and easily misdoubt (suspicious).

B. Heymans’s opinion

Gerart Heymans, a professor of Dutch people, dividing the human temperament based on three elements / essential nature of human beings, namely:
-Emotionality: Sensitivity to the feelings
-Activity: The ability to act politely
-Secondary Functions: Ability to produce responses.

Heymans dividing type of human nature based on the strength of the above three elements within each person, Heymans obtain seven types of people:
1. Gapasioneerden (great people): people are active and powerful emotional as well as secondary functions. This person is always tough, emotional, power-crazed, selfish, and critical. They are good patriots, have a strong sense of kinship and love to help people who are weak.

2. Cholerici (the stern): an active and emotional person, but weak secondary function. This person is lively, hardworking, cheerful, brave, and optimistic, like the things that are factual. They love luxury, spendthrift, like long-acting recklessly without thought to carry away.

3. Sentimental (the seducer): people who are not active, emotional and strong secondary function. These people often are emotional, often impulsive (indulge your heart), a smooth talker so easily influence others, enjoy the natural life, distancing themselves from the noise and bustle.

4. Nerveuzen (skittish people): people who are inactive and the secondary function is weak, but strong emotions. People of this type of emotional nature (inflammable but quickly became cold), like the protest / condemn others, impatient, not willing to think long, aggressive, but not revenge.

5. Flegmaciti (cool people): people are not active and strong secondary function. People of this type are always to be calm, patient, diligent, working regularly, do not despair quickly, and spoke briefly but firmly. They are broad-minded, mathematically gifted, happy reading and have a good memory. This person is diligent and nimble and able to stand alone without requiring a lot of help from others.

6. Sanguinici (childish people): people who are inactive, not emotional, but strong secondary function. The properties of this type, among other difficult decisions, lack of courage / hesitate to act, morose, taciturn, aloof, hold fast to its founding, vindictive, not snobby and power in politics was always a conservative view.

7. Amorfen (person is not formed): the people who are inactive, not emotional and weak secondary function. The characteristics of this type are among others, less intellectual, small-minded, impractical, always echoed, awkward and bad memory. They rather indefinite, drunkard, spendthrift, and tends to let himself be guided and controlled by others.

C. Spranger’s opinion
Eduard Spranger, German psychologist, divides human nature on the basis of values adopted by someone. Those values are the value of economic, political, social, science, art and religion. Based on the strength of those values in a person, E. Spranger dividing the character / personality of man into six types, namely:

1. Human theory.
These people believe the most important knowledge, is above everything. Knowledge of the most powerful, knowledge is power. This person likes to read, happy to discuss the theories of science, like investigating a truth / conduct research, tend to be alone than to chat with other people for fun.

2. Human Economy
The most important value for these people is money (economy). Motto is the time Is money. All efforts aimed at the mastery of the material / money as much as possible. His goal in life is to achieve happiness through wealth. Each activity is always reckoned hurt earnings. They diligently worked and did not want to waste time in vain.

3. Human social.
For these people, social values most affect the soul. They have properties, such as happy outgoing, likes to help others in difficulty, like to work together in solving a problem, be willing to sacrifice for the sake of the people.

4. Political human
The value of this person is most important for politics. The natures of these people like to talk about politics and state administration, following the upheaval within and outside the city, admiring the figures of statesmen. In all interests in society, he always wanted a low profile and wanted to dominate others.

5. Human art
This person's soul is always influenced by the values of art. Most of the time used to serve the arts. Most valuable in their view is anything that has the art (beauty). This guy likes to be alone, away from noise, and luxury.

6. Human pious
This person is lover of religious value. For those who are more important in life is to serve the Lord God Almighty. They want to always be good to others and to implement the religion as much as possible. In all acts of his horns, he always pays attention to religious teachings.

Personality types above can be known through several ways including:
1. Observations: directly observed behavior.
2. Interview: talk directly to someone.
3. Inventory: make a written question in brief, usually filling a column with a check mark.
4. Projective techniques: projecting themselves through pictures.
5. Biography and autobiography: a life history written by others and written his own.
6. Daily Note: analyzing a person's activity records.

The three aspects of one's personality as follow:
1. Cognitive aspects: relating to the mind. Serves to direct and control the behavior.
2. Affective aspects: the mental health associated with feelings and emotions. Function gives the energy that makes human beings behave.
3. Motor aspects: function as executors of human behavior.

Please note that a person also has the functions that are divided into physical aspects and mental aspects, among the functions of the physical personality is as follows:
1. Motoric function in the body parts.
2. Sensoric function to the tools of the senses.
3. Neurotic functions in the nervous system.
4. Sexual function in parts of the erotic body.
5. Respiratory function in the respiratory system.
6. Circulatory function of the heart and veins.
7. Digestive function in food digestion tools.

While the psychological aspect consists of the following:
1. Function of attention.
2. Observation function
3. Response function.
4. Memory function
5. The function of fantasy.
6. The function of the mind.
7. Function feelings.
8. The function of the will.

Human life both psychologically and physically is always evolving. And levels of development are often attracted considerable attention is the dramatic adolescence (puberty) and sensuality.

The development is a change and this change is not quantitative but qualitative. The development is not emphasized in material terms, but in functional terms. It can be formulated so that the development of a personality is a qualitative change from the every function of personality result of growth and learning.

The symptoms are described as psychological development, dating from three parts, namely:
1. Biological.
2. It is mainly depends on the influences around the 'converged'.
3. Discoveries made by someone in his surroundings.

As for the things that affect one's development consists of two factors:
1. Internal factors: the dating of yourself.
2. External factors: the external influences mainly come from experience that every person.

Must be considered in development of personality is:
1. Growth was relatively quite stable, particularly those involving patterns of adjustment something.
2. How their growing personal view about his own self because of the concepts learned there is the concept of him as a person. How the concept has been formed, how it affects the concept of social interaction behavior changes.
3. How to socialization process that affects the sustainability and stability of personality development is concerned.

Moslow believes that man must manifest themselves gradually and if the growth is not running smoothly, people experiencing mental health disorders or body. Stagnation in development of university because people do not dare to develop themselves or blocked by environmental then generate a setback, illness, death.

You need to also realize that a closely related development is the ambition. And as already mentioned above that the development is closely related to the changes and if someone behavior changes, so that occurred in two forms.
1. Patterns of behavior in a progressive differentiation through new discrimination.
2. Patterns that integrate through a process of progressive generalization.


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